The amount of caffeine varies among teas, with black tea containing the most. Green and white teas contain the least caffeine, with the exception of caffeine-free teas.
Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is made from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant which, after harvesting, begin to wither and oxidize. The oxidation process can be stopped by heating the leaves.
The more the tea leaves oxidize, the darker they become, which determines the type of tea:
Black tea leaves are withered, rolled and completely oxidized.
Green tea leaves are not withered or oxidized.
Oolong tea leaves are withered and partially oxidized.
White tea is composed of young leaves that are only slightly oxidized.
Black tea is the most popular tea in Europe and accounts for about 75% of world tea consumption. In Japan and China, green tea is the most popular. Oolong tea and white tea are less popular worldwide.
The amount of caffeine in a tea varies according to the type of tea. The most caffeinated teas are black and oolong teas, decaffeinated teas and teas containing little or trace amounts of caffeine.
Many teas offer a variety of health benefits, as they contain :
Antioxidants: They delay or prevent oxidative damage, which helps reduce the risk of diseases such as heart disease and cancer.
Phytochemicals: These plant compounds occur naturally. They can boost the immune system and help reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease.
Flavonoids: These are a type of polyphenolic phytochemicals and are also antioxidants.
Flavonols: These are a type of flavonoids found in tea and are potent antioxidants.
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG): is a catechin found in black tea and green tea and is a potent antioxidant.
Theanine: It is an amino acid that can help reduce stress.
Black tea contains the highest amount of caffeine, between 64 and 112 milligrams (mg) per 200 g serving.
Black tea contains no calories, fat, protein, fiber, vitamins or sugar. However, like other teas, it contains flavonoids, phytochemicals, flavonols, theanine and antioxidant properties beneficial to health. Black tea can help :
Increase mental alertness : A person may feel more alert and attentive if they drink black tea throughout the day due to its caffeine content.
Heart attack: People who drink black tea may have a lower risk of having a heart attack, while those who have been drinking black tea for at least a year may be less likely to die after a heart attack.
Low blood pressure: Caffeinated beverages may contribute to increased blood pressure in older people who have low blood pressure after eating.
Ovarian cancer: People who drink tea regularly appear to have a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer than those who never or rarely drink tea.
Oolong tea contains between 29 and 53 mg of caffeine per 2.5 liter serving.
It contains no fat, sugar, protein or fiber. Per 100 grams (g), oolong tea has :
1 mg calcium
1 mg magnesium
1 mg phosphorus
12 mg potassium K
3 mg sodium
0.01 mg zinc
0.06 mg niacin
2 mg theobromine
Oolong tea may help with weight loss. Animal studies suggest that regular consumption of oolong tea and other types of tea may help with weight loss due to the antioxidant EGCG it contains. It may also help fight heart disease, as research shows that oolong tea can lower cholesterol, which may reduce the risk of heart disease.
The caffeine content of green tea ranges from 24 to 39 mg per 200 g serving.
Per 100g, green tea contains no fat, no sugar, no fiber and contains :
0.22 g protein
0.02 mg of iron
1 mg magnesium
8 mg potassium K
1 mg sodium
0.01 mg zinc
Green tea may have health benefits such as.
Anti-cancer properties for skin cancer: in vivo and in vitro human research has found that green tea may contribute to the chemoprevention of UVB-induced skin cancer. This may be due to tea polyphenols, micronutrients found in plants.
Inflammatory skin conditions: studies have found that green tea and the EGCG it contains appear to help reduce inflammation.
Cognitive abilities: observational studies suggest a link between green tea and a lower risk of cognitive decline.
The caffeine content of white tea varies between 32 and 37 mg per 200 g serving:
White tea is nutritionally similar to green tea and is less processed than black tea, oolong tea and green tea, which means it retains more antioxidants. It has many of the same benefits as these other teas and may also help :
protection against the effects of harmful UV radiation
reduction of inflammation
improving cognitive abilities
These teas contain less than 12 mg of caffeine per 20 cl serving, and many natural caffeine-free teas contain no trace of caffeine.
The best healthy teas without caffeine
Many teas contain no trace of caffeine. You can usually find a decaffeinated version of your favorite black, green or white tea, including Earl Grey, but many teas are naturally caffeine-free. Caffeine-free teas with significant health benefits include the following.
This tea does not contain caffeine. Animal research suggests that rooibos supplements may help protect the liver from oxidative stress and reduce blood pressure.
Research suggests that hibiscus leaf extracts may offer antitumor and antioxidant properties and may support cardiovascular health and healthy blood pressure.
Chamomile tea may help improve sleep in people with insomnia. It may also reduce cholesterol levels, improve cardiovascular health, and provide antioxidant protection.
Curcumin, which is found in turmeric and gives it its characteristic yellow color, enhances immune function with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial properties.
The risks of caffeine
Consuming too much caffeine can lead to health problems. Research has cited 400 milligrams, or about 4 to 5 cups of coffee, as the maximum recommended amount per day. However, consumption above this amount is associated with dangerous negative effects, among them
increased heart rate
Some people need to avoid or limit their caffeine intake, especially people who:
Are pregnant or breastfeeding.
have sleep disorders
have high blood pressure
have ulcers or gastroesophageal reflux
Is taking medications, such as stimulants.
The most caffeinated teas are black tea, oolong tea, green tea, and white tea. They all have potential health benefits because they contain antioxidants, polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, and other health-promoting compounds.
The health benefits of tea include:
– cardiovascular health by lowering cholesterol
– weight loss
– antioxidant protection
– protection against the effects of harmful UV radiations.
– reduction of inflammation
If a person wishes to avoid caffeine, which can cause overstimulation or interact with certain health problems, decaffeinated varieties of popular teas are often available. Some teas, including many herbal teas, are naturally caffeine-free. Examples of caffeine-free teas with health benefits include rooibos, hibiscus and chamomile.
Canda, B. D., et al. (2014). Effects of rooibos (aspalathus linearis) consumption and a commercial rooibos-derived supplement on liver tissue injury by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in wistar rats.
Chang, S.-M., et al. (2015). Effects of a chamomile tea drinking intervention on sleep quality and depression in postnatal women with sleep problems: A randomized controlled trial.
Chin, J. M., et al. (2008). Caffeine content of brewed teas.
Chitpan, M., et al. (2015). Chemistry and health beneficial effects of oolong tea and teasinensins.
Ohishi, T., et al. (2016). Anti-inflammatory action of green tea. [Abstract].
Pastoriza, S., et al. (2017). Health properties of green and white teas: an update. [Abstract].
Rasheed. Z. (2019). Molecular evidence for health benefits of black tea consumption.
Three good reasons to eat a croissant first thing in the morning even if you are on a diet
When it comes to breakfast pastries, croissants are definitely at the top of the list. Flaky, buttery, and delicious, it’s hard to resist, especially in the morning. However, if you’re trying to take care of your figure, you may be wondering if a croissant is really the best option. Here are three good reasons to continue enjoying your favorite breakfast, even if you’re on a diet.
A plain croissant is relatively low in calories.
A plain croissant only contains about 220 calories, which is lower than other breakfast options like muffins or bagels. Plus, croissants help you enjoy a gourmet breakfast that will fill you up all morning. This will help you avoid snacking later in the day.
There’s no shame in indulging once in a while.
Crossing the line and indulging your cravings for a day will only boost your metabolism. Think of your indulgence as a “cheat meal” that bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts make to boost their metabolism and make their bodies burn even more.
One study found that dieters who eat a 700-calorie breakfast lose more weight than those who skip that meal. So if you’re looking to rev up your metabolism, eating a croissant early in the morning might be just what you need. Just be sure to pair it with healthy ingredients, like eggs and avocado, to ensure you’re getting all the nutrients you need.
Depriving yourself to hold the line would only make you succumb to covetous desires.
For fear of derailing your diet, you deprive yourself of your favorite foods and this only affects your mood. You become more irritable and anxious, which is of little benefit to your mental or physical health. You can maintain your ideal weight or lose weight by controlling portions and eating your food. However, if you crave a croissant on a Sunday morning, grab one and balance out your subsequent meals or engage in some high-intensity activity. You deserve to take a break and treat yourself however you see fit.
What other false enemies can we afford from time to time?
When we try to lose weight, many of us immediately eliminate all starches from our diets. However, this can be detrimental to our health. Our bodies need carbohydrates for energy, and complex carbohydrates like starches are an important part of a balanced diet. The key is to choose the right starches and consume them in moderation. Whole wheat bread, pasta, and rice are good options. These foods are high in fiber and nutrients, and can help us feel full throughout the day. When we cut calories, it’s important to make sure we’re still getting the nutrients our bodies need. By including healthy starches in our diet, we can achieve this.
Many people think that fat is taboo when it comes to losing weight, but that is not the case. In fact, our body needs fat to function properly. The key is to choose healthy fats that support our weight loss goals instead of sabotaging them. One way to do this is to cook with olive oil instead of butter. Olive oil is lower in saturated fat and contains heart-healthy monounsaturated fats.
Another option is to eat more fish. Fish like salmon and tuna are high in omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to aid weight loss. Finally, nuts and seeds are also excellent sources of healthy fats. Just be sure to choose unsalted and unroasted varieties for best results. By incorporating these healthy fats into our diet, we can achieve our weight loss goals without sacrificing our nutritional needs.
Green leafy vegetables and tea protect against cognitive decline
Flavonols are a class of antioxidant compounds found in tea, red wine, broccoli, beans, tomatoes, and leeks that have anti-inflammatory properties.
The data, mostly from animal studies, suggest that higher intakes of flavonols may protect against Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.
A recent longitudinal study found that higher dietary intake of flavonols was associated with a slowing of age-related decline in general and specific areas of cognitive function.
A recent study published in Neurology shows that a higher intake of flavonols, a category of flavonoids found in fruits, vegetables, tea, and wine, was associated with slower cognitive decline in older adults. The study adds to limited but growing data showing an association between dietary flavonol intake and brain health.
A healthy diet containing a variety of fruits and vegetables is essential for good health, especially brain health. In general, it is known that the vitamins and minerals present in these foods are important. But we now understand that it is the entire composition of the food, including bioactives like flavonols, that makes these foods beneficial.
Flavonoids and brain health
Flavonoids are a class of compounds produced by plants that possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Flavonoids are found in commonly eaten fruits and vegetables, including berries, cherries, leafy greens, tomatoes, onions, apples, citrus fruits, and beans. Beverages such as tea and red wine are also important sources of dietary flavonoids.
Previous studies have shown that higher dietary intake of flavonoids is associated with slower cognitive decline that normally occurs with aging and also due to Alzheimer’s disease. These effects of flavonoids have been attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress, decrease inflammation in the brain, and increase brain plasticity.
There are six main subclasses of flavonoids, namely flavonols, flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavones, isoflavones, and anthocyanins. Additionally, several compounds make up each subclass of flavonoids. For example, flavonols include compounds such as quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and myricetin. Although animal studies suggest a beneficial impact of certain flavonols and their individual components on cognition, similar data from human studies is limited.
Does the intake of flavonols affect cognitive function?
The present study includes data from 961 participants who reside in Chicago retirement communities and public housing for the elderly and are enrolled in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. The Rush Memory and Aging Project is a longitudinal study whose objective is to identify the factors associated with the deterioration of cognitive and motor functions caused by aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Participants were between the ages of 58 and 100 and had not been diagnosed with dementia at the time of enrollment. The researchers annually assessed the participants’ cognitive function and risk factors associated with cognitive decline.
To assess cognitive function, a trained technician administered a battery of 19 tests spanning five different cognitive domains. These five areas were:
episodic memory: a form of long-term memory that encompasses memories of events and experiences
semantic memory: a form of long-term memory that encompasses factual and conceptual knowledge
working memory: a form of short-term memory that temporarily stores and manipulates information
perceptual speed: the ability to quickly process visual information
Visuospatial Ability: Ability to perceive spatial relationships and manipulate images mentally.
Based on overall performance on the 19 cognitive tests, the researchers quantified each participant’s overall cognitive function.
To assess dietary intake of flavonols and individual flavonol components, the researchers used a standardized questionnaire to estimate the frequency of consumption of flavonol-containing foods in the past year. The researchers then examined the association between dietary flavonol intake and cognitive function after adjusting for factors associated with cognitive decline, including age, gender, education level, smoking status, physical activity level, and participation in activities that enhance cognition. The analyzes suggested that a higher intake of flavonols was associated with a slower decline in general cognitive function.
In this study population, people who ate the most flavonols (an average of 7 servings of dark green leafy vegetables per week) compared to people who ate the least had a 32% decrease in their rate of deterioration cognitive.
2 Antioxidants Linked to Slower Decrease
Furthermore, higher consumption of flavonols (kaempferol and quercetin), but not isorhamnetin or myricetin, was associated with a slower decline in general cognitive function. Looking at changes in specific cognitive domains, the researchers found that higher flavonol intake was associated with slower declines in episodic memory, semantic memory, perceptual speed, and working memory, but not visuospatial ability.
Among individual flavonol components, higher kaempferol intake was associated with a slower rate of decline in all five cognitive domains. By contrast, myricetin was not associated with a change in cognitive abilities, but was suggestive for working memory. Quercetin consumption was associated with a more gradual decline in episodic and semantic memory, whereas isorhamnetin consumption was correlated with a more gradual decline in episodic and suggestive memory for visuospatial memory.
Leafy vegetables are the richest source of kaempferol. Tea, onions, leeks, broccoli, beans, tomatoes, and berries are some of the other main sources of other flavanols.
In addition to having beneficial effects on brain health, another recent study reported an association between increased intake of flavonoids, including flavonols, and a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. This further highlights the potential protective effects of flavonoids on not only brain health but also cardiovascular health.
Eat eggs to lose weight, this is how
As part of a balanced diet, eggs can have many health benefits. A growing body of research suggests that eating eggs may also promote weight loss. Eggs are high in protein, low in calories, and can boost metabolism. In this article, we describe how to use eggs to aid weight loss, including when to eat them and how to prepare them.
Why are eggs good for weight loss?
Eggs can promote weight loss for three reasons:
1. Eggs are nutritious and low in calories.
Eggs are low in calories and high in protein.
One large hard-boiled egg contains 78 calories and several important nutrients, including:
lutein and zeaxanthin, which are antioxidants that promote good eyesight.
vitamin D, which promotes bone health and immune function
choline, which stimulates metabolism and contributes to fetal brain development.
The easiest way to lose weight is to reduce your calorie intake, and adding eggs to your diet can help with this.
For example, a lunch or dinner of two hard-boiled eggs and a cup of mixed vegetables is only 274 calories. However, cooking eggs with oil or butter significantly increases their caloric and fat content. A tablespoon of olive oil, for example, contains 119 calories.
2. Eggs are rich in protein
Protein helps with weight loss because it is extremely filling. Eggs are a good source of protein, with a large egg providing around 6 grams (g). The dietary reference intake for protein is 0.8 g per kilogram of body weight.
That means :
the average sedentary man needs 56 g of protein per day.
an average sedentary woman needs 46 g of protein per day.
Therefore, two large eggs provide more than 25% of the daily protein needs of the average sedentary woman and more than 20% of the needs of the average sedentary man.
Some research indicates that eating a high-protein breakfast increases a person’s satiety, or feelings of fullness. The results also suggest that a high-protein breakfast reduces calorie intake for the rest of the day. A 2012 study, published in the British Journal of Nutrition, suggests that dietary protein helps treat obesity and metabolic syndrome, in part because it makes you feel fuller.
3. Eggs can speed up metabolism
A high-protein diet can improve metabolism through a process called the thermic effect of food. This happens because the body has to use extra calories to digest and process the nutrients in food. Carbohydrates and fats also stimulate metabolism, but to a lesser extent than protein.
According to the results of a 2014 study:
Protein increases a person’s metabolic rate by 15-30%.
Carbohydrates increase metabolic rate by 5 to 10 percent.
Fat only increases metabolic rate by 3%.
Therefore, eating eggs and other protein-rich foods can help people burn more calories than eating carbohydrates or fat.
when to eat eggs
Research suggests that someone who eats an egg-based breakfast may consume less food throughout the day. Eggs can be especially helpful for weight loss if a person eats them for breakfast. In 2005, researchers compared the effects of eating an egg-based breakfast and a baked breakfast in overweight female participants. Both breakfasts had the same number of calories, but the participants who ate eggs ate significantly less food the rest of the day. In a 2013 study, adult men who ate eggs for breakfast needed smaller breakfasts and seemed to feel fuller than those who ate high-carb breakfasts.
However, it is still important to monitor your calorie intake. A 2008 study indicated that an egg-based breakfast promoted weight loss in overweight or obese participants, but only as part of a calorie-controlled diet.
How to eat eggs to lose weight
The key is to incorporate them into a healthy diet. It seems that eating eggs for breakfast is the best approach, as it can reduce the number of calories a person consumes for the rest of the day.
Eggs are nutritious and easy to prepare. People often like:
Serve them with vegetables for breakfast for a filling, fiber-rich meal, or add hard-boiled eggs to a salad for lunch. For a hearty dinner, top a salad of quinoa and sautéed vegetables with a poached egg.
How many eggs should a person eat?
Incorporating a moderate amount of eggs into a balanced diet may have health benefits. Recent research suggests that eating one egg a day may reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke. The researchers tracked the effects in nearly half a million adults living in China over a 9-year period.
However, it is important to note that the people in this study were not following the standard American diet. The authors of a 2018 study reported that eating at least 12 eggs a week for 3 months did not increase cardiovascular risk factors in participants with diabetes or prediabetes.
It is important to note that these participants followed a diet designed to lose weight. These results suggest that consuming a moderate amount of eggs can be beneficial for health, as long as the person incorporates them into a balanced diet. However, since egg yolks are high in cholesterol, people at risk for heart disease may want to limit themselves to one or two egg whites a day. You should also avoid adding animal fats, such as butter or bacon grease, to your egg meals.
Eggs are a low-calorie food rich in protein and other nutrients. Eating eggs can promote weight loss, especially if the person incorporates them into a low-calorie diet. Research suggests that eggs stimulate metabolic activity and increase feelings of satiety. Eating an egg-based breakfast can keep a person from consuming extra calories throughout the day. To promote weight loss, avoid preparing eggs by adding too much fat, butter or oils, for example.
If a person is at risk of cardiovascular disease, they should eat only egg whites and carefully monitor their cholesterol intake.
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