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Signs and symptoms of alcoholic liver disease



Presse Santé

Alcoholic liver disease results from excessive alcohol consumption, which damages the liver and leads to fat accumulation, inflammation, and scarring. The liver is one of the most complex organs in the human body, with more than 500 functions. These include:

– filter toxins from the blood
– energy store
– production of hormones and proteins
– regulation of cholesterol and blood sugar

This article explores the early signs and symptoms of alcoholic liver disease, its stages, causes, risk factors, treatments, and prevention.

The stages of alcoholic liver disease

Alcoholic liver disease has four main stages:

alcoholic fatty liver
alcoholic hepatitis

Liver damage can affect the entire body. Once the damage starts, it can take a long time to show up because the liver is usually very good at regenerating and repairing itself. Often, by the time doctors detect the damage, it is already irreversible.

Signs and symptoms of alcoholic liver disease

The early signs of alcoholic liver disease are vague and affect many body systems. In addition to a general feeling of being unwell, signs may include the following:

– pain in the abdomen
– nausea and vomiting
– Diarrhea
– decreased appetite

It can be easy for someone to dismiss early symptoms as the effects of gastro or general discomfort. However, failure to diagnose and treat these symptoms, especially if one continues to drink alcohol, can lead to more rapid progression of liver disease over time.

alcoholic fatty liver disease

Drinking a large amount of alcohol can cause fatty acids to build up in the liver. Sometimes heavy drinking over a short period of time, even less than a week, can be the cause. There are usually no symptoms, and fatty liver disease is usually reversible if the person abstains from alcohol thereafter.

alcoholic hepatitis

Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe syndrome of alcoholic liver disease. Hepatitis is a general term for swelling and inflammation of the liver, whatever the cause. If a person continues to drink alcohol, it will lead to permanent inflammation of the liver. This can happen after several years of heavy drinking. It can also occur acutely during periods of heavy drinking.

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Common symptoms of alcoholic hepatitis are:

– jaundice, or a yellow tint to the whites of the eyes and skin
– an enlarged liver, called hepatomegaly
– the characteristics of a systemic inflammatory reaction such as:
– body temperature below 36°C or above 38°C
– heart rate greater than 90 beats per minute
– respiratory rate greater than 20 breaths per minute
– number of white blood cells greater than 12,000 or less than 4,000 per microliter.

Alcoholic hepatitis usually progresses to cirrhosis if the person continues to drink alcohol. Hepatitis can be cured in a person who stops drinking alcohol, but possible cirrhosis is not reversed.


Fibrosis is a buildup of certain types of proteins in the liver, including collagen. It is present in most types of chronic liver disease.

To determine the extent of fibrosis, doctors use the Metavir grading system on a scale from A0 to A3:

A0: no activity
A1: light activity
A2: moderate activity
A3: severe activity
Mild to moderate forms of fibrosis may be reversible.

The Metavir system also evaluates the level of fibrosis from F0 to F3:

F0: absence of fibrosis
F1: fibrosis without scar tissue
F2: Fibrosis with occasional scar tissue
F3: extensive scar but no cirrhosis
F4: cirrhosis


Cirrhosis occurs when the liver has been inflamed for a long time, leading to scarring and loss of function. This condition can be life-threatening. The damage caused by cirrhosis is irreversible, but a person can prevent further damage by continuing to avoid alcohol. Lifelong abstinence can improve liver function, but severe, permanent damage from cirrhosis may mean a person needs a liver transplant to survive. Because the liver no longer processes toxins properly, the person will be more sensitive to toxins. drugs and alcohol. Alcohol consumption accelerates liver destruction, reducing the liver’s ability to compensate for current damage.

late signs

As alcoholic liver disease progresses, its symptoms become easier to recognize. The most distinctive signs of advanced liver disease, such as cirrhosis or fibrosis, are:

– edema or swelling of the lower extremities
– an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen (ascites)
– fever and chills
– extreme itching of the skin
– nails that curve excessively (circles)
– significant weight loss
– general weakness and muscle atrophy
– blood in vomit and stool
– bleeding and bruising more easily
– more sensitive reactions to alcohol and drugs

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Risk factor’s

Several factors increase the risk of alcoholic liver disease. People who drink beer and hard liquor are more likely to have liver disease than those who drink other alcoholic beverages, such as wine. Women are more susceptible to the negative effects of alcohol, even at the same levels of consumption as men, and are therefore more likely to rapidly develop fibrosis, inflammation, and liver damage from alcohol. Those who drink more than two drinks a day and men who drink more than three drinks a day for more than five years have an increased risk of alcoholic liver disease. Women who drink large amounts of alcohol and who are also overweight have a higher chance of developing chronic liver disease. However, obesity is also a risk factor for men.

Having hepatitis C increases your risk, and someone who regularly drinks alcohol and has had any type of hepatitis is more likely to develop liver disease. Genetic changes can affect risk. If a person experiences changes in the genetic profile of certain enzymes essential for alcohol metabolism, such as ADH, ALDH and CYP4502E1, they will be more likely to develop alcoholic liver disease.


The first step in treating alcoholic liver disease at any level is to eliminate alcohol from the diet.


It can help reverse some early stages of liver disease. For example, stopping drinking once you’ve been diagnosed with fatty liver disease can reverse the disease in 2 to 6 weeks.
When a doctor diagnoses alcoholic liver disease at any stage, he recommends that the person never drink again. Any condition that has been reversed will usually reappear when the person resumes drinking. People who regularly drink more than the recommended daily alcohol limits should not stop drinking without medical support. Alcohol withdrawal can be life-threatening. People should seek help from a health professional to manage withdrawal safely.

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Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can relieve withdrawal symptoms in an alcohol-dependent person. People with severe alcohol addiction may stay in an inpatient rehab facility for closer monitoring.

Changes in lifestyle

Doctors may also recommend losing weight and quitting smoking, as both being overweight and smoking have been shown to play a role in worsening alcoholic liver disease. Doctors may also recommend taking a daily multivitamin.

Liver transplant

In people with liver failure, the liver stops working altogether. This can be the result of advanced liver disease, and often means that a liver transplant is the only option for long-term survival. A liver transplant is a complicated procedure that depends on the availability of a donor. As a general rule, only people who can justify abstinence from alcohol for at least six months before the operation are eligible for a transplant. A liver transplant is the last resort. Stopping drinking and treating this disease early is the best way for a person to increase their chances of reversing or delaying the disease. Anti-rejection medications after transplant can increase the risk of serious infections and certain types of cancer.


To prevent alcoholic liver disease and other alcohol-related conditions, doctors advise moderate alcohol consumption: “one drink a day” for women and “two drinks a day” for men, and this only after 21 years. Binge drinking is generally defined as consuming five or more alcoholic drinks for men or four or more alcoholic drinks for women on the same occasion, on at least one day in the past month.


The life expectancy of a person with alcoholic liver disease decreases significantly as the disease progresses. On average, 1 in 3 people with the most advanced stages of liver disease and cirrhosis are still alive after 2 years. When the body is able to compensate and control cirrhosis, the typical life expectancy is 6 to 12 years. People with less serious illnesses will survive longer if they abstain from alcohol. Not smoking and weight control are important lifestyle changes people can make to further reduce risk.

* HealthKey strives to transmit health knowledge in a language accessible to all. In NO CASE, the information provided can not replace the advice of a health professional.

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Well Being

2 minutes is enough to increase your longevity



Presse Santé

Don’t have enough time to exercise during the week? Or are you unable to find the motivation to do it? A new study shows that 15 minutes of vigorous exercise per week or just two minutes of vigorous exercise per day is enough. This is good news for those who do not have free time for physical activity.

Reduced risk of premature death.

This study appeared in the European Heart Journal. It shows that fifteen minutes per week or two minutes of intensive exercise per day reduces the risk of premature death by 18%.

The new study comes to support the impact of physical activity on our life expectancy.

For the study, the researchers attached activity trackers to the wrists of 71,893 adults with an average age of 62.5 for nearly seven years. Five years later, the researchers identified those who died in the meantime. People who were not physically active had a 4% risk of death during this period. In contrast, people who practiced ten minutes of exercise a week saw this risk cut in half. In total, fifteen minutes of intense physical exercise a week has been shown to reduce the risk of death by 18%.

The more you move, the better!

Of course, the more exercise you do, the better. According to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, a “healthy person” performs an average of 150 to 300 minutes of moderate physical exercise per week. You can also opt for 75 to 150 minutes of vigorous exercise per week. Research shows that these guidelines reduce the risk of premature death by 21%. Do you exercise more than the number of minutes listed above? In this case, the benefits in terms of useful life are even greater.

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The benefits of sport for your brain.

More mental resilience.

When exercise is done at high intensity, the body develops physically, but also mentally, as it “adapts” to new challenges and learns to handle more load and stress. On training days, overall mental performance is better than on rest days. Memory seems to improve, as well as coordination and reaction speed.

Better mood.

Through the production and exchange of dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, endorphins, adrenaline, etc. in the brain and in the body, the organism is rewarded with a feeling of well-being during and after exercise.

Stress management.

When your brain releases chemicals, your body “receives” stimuli to relieve pain, reduce stress and inflammation, body aches, insomnia, fatigue, and anxiety. In addition, thanks to better mental resistance, athletes can better manage stressful situations. Sport is a way to release “bad stress” and balance the body for the mental and physical challenges ahead.

improved health.

Sport strengthens the functions of the cardiovascular system, the respiratory tract and the nervous system. Sport is a key factor in “refining” your metabolism. All of this should lead to better overall health.

power charge.

In many medical and sports articles it is said that after a few minutes of sports an effect called “runner’s high” is achieved and that it is due to the chemicals that are produced “to manage” the effort. This “energy charge” includes chemicals for load resistance, stamina, pain relief, etc. The end result is a feeling of “energy” (as long as the training does not continue until exhausted by fatigue). In many articles it is mentioned that even 20 minutes of activity can already help you “get” a high energy charge.

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Reduction of depression and anxiety..

Do you know the principle of the snowball effect? Rolling down a mountain, a snowball continues to grow as it goes down. Sports have the same effect.

* HealthKey strives to convey health knowledge in a language accessible to all. In NO EVENT can the information provided replace the opinion of a health professional.

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Well Being

The 9 Best Exercises for Healthy Feet



Presse Santé

Many people experience foot or ankle pain at one time or another. Keeping your feet strong can help alleviate these pains and improve overall health and flexibility. Exercising and stretching your feet and ankles regularly helps ensure that the muscles provide the best possible support. These exercises can also increase the range of motion in the feet, allowing a person to stay active for as long as possible. Most foot exercises are simple and do not require complicated equipment. People can do them at home or at the gym as part of a regular exercise routine.

The following exercises can improve the flexibility and mobility of the feet.

1. Raise, point and curl your toes

This exercise has three stages and helps to strengthen all parts of the feet and toes.

To do this exercise:

Sit upright in a chair with your feet flat on the floor.
Keeping your toes on the floor, raise your heels. Stop when only the balls of your feet remain on the ground.
Hold this position for 5 seconds before lowering your heels.
For the second step, lift your heels and point your toes so that only the tips of your big and second toes are touching the ground.
Hold this position for 5 seconds before lowering your heels.
For the third step, lift your heels and curl your toes in so that only the tips of your toes are touching the floor. Hold this position for 5 seconds.
Develop flexibility and mobility by repeating each step 10 times.

2. Big Toe Stretch

It is important to maintain a wide range of motion in the big toe. The following exercise also has three steps and is designed to stretch and relieve pain in your toes from wearing tight shoes.

To do this exercise:

Sit upright in a chair with your feet flat on the floor.
Place the left foot on the right thigh.
Using your fingers, gently stretch your big toe up, down, and to the sides.
Hold your big toe in each position for 5 seconds.
Repeat this exercise 10 times before switching to the other foot.

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foot muscle exercises

The following exercises can help improve foot strength.

3. Separation of the toes

The finger separation exercise can improve control of the finger muscles. You can do this on both feet at once or alternate feet, whichever is most comfortable for you.

To do this exercise:

Sit in a straight-backed chair with your feet flat on the floor.
Spread your toes as far apart as possible without straining. Hold this position for 5 seconds.
Repeat this movement 10 times.
Once a person has built up strength, they can try wrapping a rubber band around their toes. This provides resistance and makes the exercise more difficult.

4. Finger Curl

Doing finger curls develops the flexor muscles in the toes and feet, which improves overall strength.

To do this exercise:

Sit upright in a chair with your feet flat on the floor.
Place a small towel on the floor in front of your body, with the small side facing your feet.
Place the toes of one foot on the short side of the towel. Try to grab the towel between your toes and pull it towards you. Repeat this exercise five times before switching to the other foot.
To make this exercise more difficult, try pressing down on the opposite end of the towel with an object.

5. Collect marbles

Picking up marbles can increase muscle strength in the soles of the feet and toes.

To do this exercise:

Sit upright in a chair with your feet flat on the floor.
Place an empty bowl and a bowl with 20 marbles on the floor in front of your feet.
Using only the toes of one foot, pick up each marble and place it in the empty container.
Repeat this exercise with the other foot.

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6. Walking on the sand

Walking barefoot on the sand is a great way to stretch and strengthen your feet and calves. It’s good overall exercise because the soft texture of the sand makes walking more physically demanding.

To do this exercise:

Head to a beach, volleyball court, or anywhere else with sand.
Take off your shoes and socks.
Walk as far as possible. Try to increase the distance slowly over time to avoid overloading your feet and calf muscles.

exercises for pain

The following exercises may be helpful in relieving pain.

7. Toe Extension

Toe extension is helpful in preventing or treating plantar fasciitis, which is a condition that causes pain in the heel when walking and difficulty lifting the toes.

To do this exercise:

Sit upright in a chair with your feet flat on the floor.
Place the left foot on the right thigh.
Pull the toes towards the ankle. You should feel a stretch along the bottom of your foot and heel tendon.
Hold this position for 10 seconds. Massaging the arch of the foot during the stretch helps relieve tension and pain.
Repeat this exercise 10 times on each foot.

8. Rolling a golf ball underfoot

Rolling a golf ball under your foot can help relieve arch discomfort and decrease pain associated with plantar fasciitis.

To do this exercise:

Sit upright in a chair with your feet flat on the floor.
Place a golf ball, or other small, hard ball, on the ground at your feet.
Put one foot on the ball and move it by pressing as hard as you want. The ball should massage the bottom of the foot.
Continue for 2 minutes, then repeat on the other foot.
An ice cold bottle of water can be a relaxing alternative.

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9. Achilles heel stretch

The Achilles tendon is a cord that connects the heel to the calf muscles. It can get out of shape easily, but keeping it strong can help relieve foot, ankle, or leg pain.

To do this exercise:

Stand facing a wall and raise your arms so that your palms are flat against the wall.
Step back with one foot, keeping the knee straight. Then, bend the knee of the opposite leg.
Keep both heels flat on the ground.
Push your hips forward until you feel a stretching sensation in your Achilles tendon and calf muscles.
Hold this position for 30 seconds before switching sides. Repeat three times on each side.
For a slightly different stretch, bend your back knee and push your hips forward.

Foot Health and Safety Tips

To help keep your feet strong and healthy:

Perform a thorough warm-up before exercising.
Wear supportive shoes for your daily activities and sports.
Replace worn out shoes as often as possible.
Slowly build strength and flexibility to condition feet and ankles.
Avoid uneven surfaces, especially when running. Try not to run uphill too often.
Listen to your body. Do not overdo the activities.
Prevent any recurrence of the injury by resting and seeking proper treatment.


It is good for keeping your feet and ankles healthy. Performing the above exercises can help relieve existing pain, prevent discomfort, and reduce the risk of injury.
People with a diagnosed foot condition, such as plantar fasciitis or a torn Achilles tendon, can try exercises to help. Always consult a health professional, if possible, before starting a new exercise and stretching program.

* HealthKey strives to convey health knowledge in a language accessible to all. In NO EVENT can the information provided replace the opinion of a health professional.

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Well Being

6 questions you should ask yourself for a 100% effective diet



Presse Santé

Your weight loss success largely depends on your willingness to rise to the challenge. If you take the plunge before you’re ready, your weight loss program could fail at the first hurdle.

Knowing that you need to make changes in your life and actually making them are two different things.

Use these questions to assess your readiness to lose weight.

Are you motivated to make long-term changes to your lifestyle?

Successful weight loss depends on making permanent lifestyle changes, such as eating healthy, low-calorie foods and including physical activity in your daily routine. This could represent a significant departure from your current lifestyle.

You may need to revise your diet to eat more whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, for example. It will be important to eat a variety of healthy foods. You’ll also need to find time for physical activity, ideally for at least 30 to 45 minutes, or more, most days of the week.

Find your motivation and focus on it:

Your true motivation is the best guarantee of success, but what is it? To make these changes, ask yourself first why you want to lose weight, all these changes to:

  • have better health,
  • better appearance
  • feel better about yourself
  • better way
  • start a new love story

Have you identified anything in your life that might distract you from your weight loss goal?

If you’re dealing with major life events, such as marital problems, work stress, illness, or financial worries, you may not want to add the challenge of reviewing your eating habits and time spent being physically active. It may be better to wait until the right time to embark on your weight loss program to limit the risk of failure due to external factors that are too heavy.

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Do you have a realistic picture of how much weight you will lose and how fast?

Reaching and maintaining a healthy weight is a lifelong process. Start by making sure your weight loss goal is safe and realistic, such as losing 5 percent of your current weight.

Try to start losing 0.5 to 1 kilogram per week until you reach your goal. This means burning 500 to 1,000 more calories than you consume each day, through diet and exercise.

You could lose weight faster if you change your habits significantly. However, be careful. Radical changes that are not sustainable are unlikely to be effective in the long term.

Have you resolved emotional problems related to your weight?

Emotions and food are often intertwined. Anger, stress, grief, and boredom can trigger emotional eating. If you have a history of disordered eating, losing weight can be even more difficult.

To prepare for challenges, identify emotional issues related to eating.

Do you have support around you?

Any weight loss program can be difficult. You may face moments of temptation or discouragement. Having someone around you to offer encouragement can help. If you don’t have friends or loved ones you can rely on for positive help, consider joining a weight loss support group.

If you want to keep your weight loss efforts to yourself and not tell anyone about it, it will be more difficult. But maybe you’re ready to be responsible to yourself: set up dates with yourself then. With summary about:

  • – regular weigh-ins
  • – monitor your diet
  • – track your physical activity
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Have you really accepted the weight loss challenge?

If you don’t have a positive attitude toward weight loss, you may not be ready. And if you fear what’s to come, you’re more likely to find excuses to veer off course.

Instead, try to take a nice view of your new lifestyle and stay positive. Focus on how good you will feel when you are more active or weigh less. Imagine celebrating all the successes along the way, whether it’s enjoying a new food, completing another workout, or losing your first few pounds.

If you answered yes to most or all of the questions

You are probably ready to make lifestyle changes that will help you lose weight permanently. Get ahead with healthy eating and regular physical activity, starting today!

If you think you need help, see a dietitian or join a reputable weight loss program. If you have a significant amount of weight to lose, you may benefit from follow-up with a therapist or obesity specialist.

If you answer no to more than one of the questions

You may not be ready to embark on a weight loss program right now, and that’s okay. Explore what’s holding you back and face those obstacles.

Consider seeking help from a professional weight loss tracker to help you deal with any roadblocks. Then, reassess your readiness for your weight loss program so you can get off to a great start.

Ready, set, let’s go

If you can’t answer every question with a simple yes or no, but overall you feel positive and confident with your answers, consider starting now.

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You may never have definitive answers in life. Don’t let this rob you of the opportunity to achieve your weight loss goals.

* HealthKey strives to convey health knowledge in a language accessible to all. In NO EVENT can the information provided replace the opinion of a health professional.

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