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Organ donation: why we are afraid



Don’t think about your own death

Let’s face it, the topic never spontaneously comes to the table. Thinking about organ donation often involves consider his death, long before the end of his life. “In principle, everyone is in favor, but few of us think about it,” explains Fabienne Tong, from the Biomedicine Agency. The figures are edifying: in 2008, some 13,000 patients needed a transplant, 1,500 donors were withdrawn and more than 200 people died because they were not transplanted on time, according to the Biomedicine Agency.

We fear our disappearance, and when we evoke it, it is in the perspective of a distant future. Nothing could be more logical, according to psychoanalysis: “In his unconscious, each one is convinced of his own immortality, Freud affirmed in his psychoanalysis essays (Payot, “Little Library”, 2001). The belief in death, therefore, finds no support in our instincts. Nobody believes it, and delving into this question can awaken deep superstitions: “I don’t want to talk about my death, I’m afraid it will bring me bad luck,” admits David, 42. “I can’t imagine this could happen to me,” says Isabelle, 31. As for organ donation, he would be too afraid to be alive at the time of removal. »

“Fear of staying alive”: the sentence is withdrawn! Because to the psychic inability to admit one’s own death is added the physiological reality, that of the subtraction itself. This occurs in the context of brain or brain death, a state during which breathing and heartbeat are artificially maintained. The hands are warm, the cheekbones sometimes rosy, the chest moves. There is no rigor mortis and no pale complexion, even if the blood has stopped supplying the brain. All brain activities stop permanently and neurons are destroyed. Only here it is: nothing visually signals death.

It is then to a complete revision of our cultural history that science asks us to proceed. Explanations of the psychoanalyst Karl-Leo Schwering: “Today death is no longer only physiological. Vital organs can be artificially kept active. But these advances in medicine date only to the 1960s, and it is very difficult to erase centuries of fundamental ethical milestones. »

The fear of fragmentation

It is difficult to accept the idea that this organ that ensures our harmonious relationship with the world is scattered. “I don’t want them to cut me off, to disperse me,” says Elsa, 35. Giving up the liver or spleen triggers a fantasy of fear of fragmentation. Our integrity is attacked, and the narcissistic image of our shell damaged, dented. “It is about symbolically cutting the body. For some, the mere idea that a person who lives two hours before is dismembered and then amputated from the heart or the cornea is unbearable”, estimates the sociologist Renée Waissman in organ donation (PUF, “Medicine and society”, 2001).

A primitive fear resurfaces. “The breach of bodily integrity falls within the domain of the forbidden, says Jean-Michel Coq, a psychologist at samu and Necker hospital in Paris. He sends everyone back to the anxieties of dismemberment. We need a package that holds us together, we think. Accepting the direct debit would mean dislocating us. The attack seems all the more frightening the more we overload our body: its appearance and its maintenance are one of our main concerns. “Today we consider the individual as an island”, observes the philosopher Philippe Barrier in his Open letter to those who do not see themselves as organ donors (Frison-Roche Editions, 2002). We withdraw into ourselves and life no longer passes from one being to another. However, our body is always built in interaction with what surrounds us. »

For millennia, dissection was a fundamental taboo, recalls Karl-Leo Schwering: “It took centuries for medicine to free itself from it. Knowing the inside of the body was a divine prerogative. Doctors who had access to it could only do so if it was to treat. The end justified the means. Today, when the patient is dead, he no longer opens to save him but to use him, some say. This utilitarian approach is symbolically opposed to a sacred dimension, anchored in these people. » Confirms Marianne, 25 years old: « I can’t stand the idea that people can do their shopping with me. Our psychic apparatus is not in step with scientific progress. Our unconscious thinks like a primitive man, Freud argued in totem and taboo (Payot, “Little Library”, 2001). And our archaic anxieties sometimes take over. Especially when we face dramatic situations, such as the disappearance of loved ones.

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How to express consent

– In France, living donation is practiced mainly for the kidney and can only benefit a patient from his closest family circle.

– In case of brain death, doctors verify if the person is registered in a register that specifies their refusal; Otherwise, they ask their family, who does or does not consent to the removal. Click here

– It is possible to apply for an organ donor card, but it has no legal value. It only signals to the medical teams that the person has accepted the sample, but it does not prevent the mandatory consultation of family members. Click here

a carnal bond

“I don’t care what happens after my death,” says Émilie, 38. I will gladly donate my organs. On the other hand, if it happened to one of my children and someone asked me to, it would be like accepting the loss of an overly emotional part of myself. I used them. I don’t think I can accept. » Families facing these tragic times must accept the physical distress and fear of loss as a result of authorization for organ harvesting. The only link that unites them with each other is the carnal and the sensory, since all other communication is broken. “They can’t talk to him anymore, analyzes Karl-Leo Schwering. They can only touch it. Caress an arm, a hand, a hair. The body acquires an inordinate importance because it is all that remains of what united them sensually. And is it this body that we are going to harm? It becomes very difficult to accept, because it is a moment of extreme anguish where one borders on madness. The cam can cut, kill, damage the exchange between the other and me.

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The fantasy of murder.

Sometimes there is an enormous feeling of guilt when the relatives authorize the sample: “They have an unconscious fear of committing a murder and of being accomplices of the doctors, whom they may perceive as garbage collectors”, explains Jean-Michel Coq. Why ? The love of a loved one is always tinged with an ambivalence that unconsciously includes the desire to destroy him. When his death occurs in reality, guilt is important. “Survivors often fall prey to painful doubts, which we call ‘disturbing guilt,’ wondering whether they themselves, through negligence or carelessness, caused the death of their loved one,” Freud writes.

When her son-in-law was killed on a motorcycle, Françoise, 51, was angry with him for depriving her of her presence: “I was very angry and, at the same time, numb with pain. We talk a lot as a family. We remember Martin saying that he would “give”. The decision was very difficult to make: imagine that his son is going to have an operation, that his organs are going to be removed… But today I tell myself that Martín transmitted something to me. »

Overcoming one’s own fears allows access to a form of narcissistic reparation: we contribute to one or more beings living. Of course, you will have to imagine it, because the gift you give is anonymous, but something new, unspeakable happens. Conclusion of Karl-Leo Schwering: “It is a moment of grace between humans. »

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A walk through health by Christian and Olga Baudelot
A funny and very emotional text, in which the sociologist and his wife recount their transplant experience: Christian gave Olga a kidney (Stock, 2008).

Also read: I will give my kidney to my brother

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Well Being

7 numbers to consider for iron health



Presse Santé

We all know that to feel good and look good, you need to be healthy. To help you on your quest for wellness, we have compiled a list of 7 health numbers to memorize. Trust us, your body will thank you!

  1. Eat at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that adults eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day. It may sound like a lot, but one serving is actually very small. For example, half a cup of cooked or raw vegetables or one cup of leafy green vegetables counts as one serving.

As for the fruit, a small apple or a banana is considered a serving. While five servings may sound like a lot, it’s actually not hard to achieve this goal if you make the effort to include fruits and vegetables at every meal.

Think of all the delicious possibilities available to you! Ripe mango for breakfast, crispy carrot for lunch, and steamed broccoli for dinner. Eating five servings of fruits and vegetables is not only healthy, but also incredibly delicious. So why not give it a try?

  1. Get 30 minutes of moderate exercise 5 days a week.

Exercise is essential for maintaining good health. All it takes is 30 minutes of moderate exercise five days a week to reduce the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. It can also improve your mental health and help you better manage stress. Exercise doesn’t have to be expensive or time consuming. A quick walk in the park or a game of tennis is enough. And the benefits are worth it. Regular exercise can help you feel better, and it’s never too late to start. So get moving today and reap the rewards for your efforts tomorrow.

  1. Drink 8 glasses of water a day.

Staying hydrated is essential for good health. This means drinking plenty of fluids throughout the day. Although there are many different drinks, water is the best option to quench your thirst and stay hydrated. In fact, according to the Mayo Clinic, adults should drink at least eight 12-ounce glasses of water a day. Water helps flush toxins from the body, transport nutrients to cells, and lubricate joints. In addition, it helps regulate body temperature and prevents dehydration, which can cause headaches, fatigue, and dizziness. When it comes to staying hydrated, water is the way to go.

  1. Get a flu shot every 12 months.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “the flu vaccine is the best way to protect yourself against the flu.” The CDC recommends that everyone over the age of six months get a flu shot every year. The flu vaccine helps your body build immunity against the viruses in the vaccine. This helps your body fight infection if you are exposed to the virus. Influenza vaccines are safe and effective. They’re made from dead viruses, so they can’t give you the flu. If you have any concerns about getting a flu shot, talk to a health professional.

  1. Limit alcohol consumption to 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men.

Alcohol use can have a variety of health effects, both short and long term. In the short term, alcohol use can cause impaired judgment and coordination, slurred speech, and slowed reaction time. These effects can be dangerous in certain situations, such as driving a car or using machinery.

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The long-term effects of alcohol use can include liver damage, heart disease, cancer, and cognitive decline. For these reasons, it is important to limit alcohol consumption to one drink a day for women and two drinks a day for men. This limits the risk of developing health problems due to excessive alcohol consumption.

It’s also important to note that the type of alcoholic beverage consumed can also play a role in health risks. For example, drinking hard liquor is more likely to cause liver damage than drinking beer or wine. Therefore, it is important to pay attention not only to the amount of alcohol consumed, but also to the type of alcohol consumed.

  1. Sleep at least 7 hours a night.

Most people know the importance of a good night’s sleep, but may not realize how essential it is to their health and well-being. Adults need seven to eight hours of sleep a night, and children even more. Sleep helps the body repair and regenerate cells, reduces stress levels, and improves mood and concentration. Lack of sleep can lead to serious health problems, including obesity, heart disease, and diabetes. It can also increase the risk of accidents and injuries.

  1. Visit your doctor for a checkup every 2 years.

Even if you feel healthy, it’s important to see your doctor for regular checkups. These appointments are an opportunity to evaluate possible health problems and detect them early. For example, a blood pressure test can help detect high blood pressure, which can lead to strokes or heart attacks if left untreated. Also, regular doctor appointments are an opportunity to build a relationship with a health care provider. This can be beneficial if you have questions or concerns about your health, or if you need treatment for an illness or injury.

* HealthKey strives to convey health knowledge in a language accessible to all. In NO EVENT can the information provided replace the opinion of a health professional.

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Well Being

Himalayan salt lamps: what benefit to expect?



Presse Santé

Some people claim that Himalayan salt lamps can improve air quality, improve your mood, and help you sleep. However, there is little research to back up these purported health benefits. Himalayan salt lamps are decorative lamps that you can purchase for your home. They are carved from Himalayan pink salt and are believed to have various health benefits. In fact, proponents of salt lamps claim they can purify the air in your home, soothe allergies, improve your mood, and help you sleep. However, others question the merits of these claims. This article explores the evidence for Himalayan salt lamps and separates fact from fiction.

What are Himalayan salt lamps and why do people use them?

Himalayan salt lamps are made by placing a light bulb inside large chunks of pink Himalayan salt. They have a distinctive look and give off a warm pink glow when lit. Genuine Himalayan Salt Lamps are made from salt harvested from the Khewra Salt Mine, Pakistan. The salt from this region is said to be millions of years old and although it is similar to table salt, the small amounts of minerals it contains give it a pinkish colour. Many people choose to purchase Himalayan salt lamps simply because they like the look of them and enjoy the ambiance that pink light creates in their home. Others are seduced by its supposed health benefits.

How do Himalayan salt lamps work?

Salt lamps are said to be beneficial to health because they are “natural ionizers”, that is, they change the electrical charge of the circulating air. Ions are compounds that carry a charge because they have an unbalanced number of protons or electrons. They are naturally produced in the air when weathering occurs in the atmosphere. For example, waterfalls, waves, thunderstorms, natural radioactivity, and heat produce ions in the air. They can also be artificially created by commercially produced air ionizers. It is suggested that Himalayan salt lamps can produce ions by attracting water particles that evaporate as a salt solution when heated by the lamp, forming mostly negative ions.

However, this theory has not yet been proven. At present, it is not known if, if at all, salt lamps produce ions in significant amounts.

What are health claims and are they valid?

Himalayan salt lamps have three main health claims.

1. They improve air quality

Salt lamps are often claimed to improve the air quality in your home. More specifically, they are presented as beneficial for people suffering from allergies, asthma or diseases that affect respiratory function. However, there is currently no evidence that using a Himalayan salt lamp can kill potential pathogens and improve the air quality in your home.
The claim that they are good for people with respiratory problems may be based in part on the ancient practice of halotherapy. As part of this therapy, people with chronic respiratory conditions would benefit from a stay in salt caves due to the presence of salt in the air. Although some studies have shown that this practice may be beneficial for certain respiratory conditions, more quality studies are still needed. Also, tests with air ionizers, which emit high levels of negative ions, have not yet shown that they are beneficial for people with asthma or for improving respiratory function.

2. They can improve your mood

Another common claim is that Himalayan salt lamps can improve your mood. Some animal studies have shown that exposure to high levels of negative ions in the air can improve levels of serotonin, a chemical involved in mood regulation. However, older human studies looking at the psychological effects of air ionization found no consistent effects on mood or sense of well-being. However, the researchers found that people with depressive symptoms who were exposed to very high levels of negative ions reported an improvement in their mood. mood. However, the link found was not related to dose, which means that the improvement in people’s mood could not be explained by the dose they were receiving. Therefore, the researchers wondered if the link was causal. Also, salt lamps are highly unlikely to expose you to the large amount of negative ions used in these studies.

3. They can help you sleep

No studies have yet examined the effects of Himalayan salt lamps on sleep. However, a 2013 review on the effects of air ionization on relaxation and sleep found no evidence of a beneficial effect. So even if salt lamps do affect the air environment, it’s not clear if this has an effect on sleep patterns. The dim light from a Himalayan salt lamp can make you drowsy at the end of the day if you use it to replace bright electric lights. In fact, bright light before bed can slow the production of melatonin, the sleep hormone. However, this phenomenon is not specific to salt lamps and this theory has not been proven.

Do Himalayan salt lamps have any beneficial effects?

Although some of their health claims are not supported by science, Himalayan salt lamps may have other benefits.

Here are a few:

Salt lamps are attractive – if you like the way they look, they can be an attractive addition to your home.
They create a pleasant atmosphere: They could help create a relaxing environment that helps you relax.
These lights can help limit light at night: If you have trouble sleeping, using dim lights at night can help you fall asleep faster.
All in all, these points can make it a great addition to your home.


Health claims related to Himalayan salt lamps are not supported by evidence. Although they can be an attractive addition to a room and help create a relaxing environment.

* HealthKey strives to convey health knowledge in a language accessible to all. In NO EVENT can the information provided replace the opinion of a health professional.

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Well Being

The Feng Shui method for better interior decoration



Presse Santé

Interior decoration is an art that not only brings color and light to a home, but also brings personality, comfort and good energy.

Interior design concepts are very diverse depending on the themes and goals. Some people prefer minimalist yet functional design plans, while others prefer more complex and defined design plans. Although there are several design principles to choose from, interior designers should always pay attention to energy flow in their design plans.

Everything in this universe is made of energy; from the life force to the earth element, everything works on an energetic map. These energetic forces can be manipulated into positive or negative energy. The Chinese concept of yin and yang is based on this philosophical balance of positive and negative forces in the universe. Then it was applied in the field of interior decoration, introducing the elements of Feng Shui.

What is Feng Shui?

Before we talk about the elements of Feng Shui and how you can manipulate it, let’s first understand what it really is. The Chinese practice of manipulating the life force helps to control “chi”, that is, the flow of energy. Feng Shui focuses on the two primary energy forces of wind and water to influence areas of your life.

Simply put, wind and water have the ability to flow freely. Feng Shui elements are arranged in such a way that these natural elements flow through the living space of the house. The good energy that is emitted through the use of Feng Shui affects the temperament, vitality and general well-being of the inhabitants. In a way, Feng Shui closely mimics the components of Yin and Yang. Helps balance the flow of good and bad energies.

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The marrow of these nutritive components is chi, or vital stress. Wind and water are immediate carriers of chi, as the quality of its flow reflects its fundamental nature. All living things are largely made up of these two components. In this light, Feng Shui is the specialty of planning kindness conditions with the flow of chi through the design of the living space, and this flow supports and enhances anyone’s chi or life impulse.

Feng Shui: when it comes to redesigning your rooms for absolute well-being.

  1. General distribution of the house:

Feng Shui uses the principles of engineering, interior design, and astronomy to create a positive impact in the home, without giving in to superstitions.

It is essential that the house is designed with a symmetrical or asymmetrical balance. It must have a well-designed exterior that facilitates the growth of natural elements, without harming the environment. Feng Shui emphasizes the need to cultivate as many natural energy forces as possible to maintain the balance of Yin and Yang in a home.

  1. The distribution of the rooms:

To create positive energy in the arrangement of the rooms, it is better to remove all leaning structures. According to the principles of “chi” and Feng Shui, leaning structures tend to attract total chaos. This is not due to any superstitious belief, but rather to the danger posed by leaning structures.

If it is impossible to remove these negatively impacting structures around the house, Feng Shui experts suggest using bagua reflections outside the house to prevent the flow of negative energy.

  1. The position of the house:

Feng Shui experts suggest that a house should not be located near a graveyard, landfill, or garbage dump. These places generate negative energy that is harmful to the inhabitants.

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According to the basic principles of Feng Shui, it is better if the house is located on an open road, at a sufficient distance from the street. Garages should be created without penetrating the perimeter of the house, to keep negativity away from the outside. The positioning of the house plays an important role in balancing the negative and positive energies within the home.

* HealthKey strives to convey health knowledge in a language accessible to all. In NO EVENT can the information provided replace the opinion of a health professional.

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