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Psychology & Diet

Eating and knowing when to stop – Eating to satiety, no more – Recognizing satiety



Eating and knowing how to stop. It’s a truism. But many of us have eyes that are bigger than our stomachs. The result: we eat too much. How can we reconnect with our sensations when we eat? The point with psychiatrist and psychotherapist Gérard Apfeldorfer.

There are those who systematically finish their plate, those who can’t stop refilling it, or those who count calories to the point of forgetting what they really like to eat or not. The former are shaped by bad educational habits, the latter seek to “fill up” on food, and the latter are hyper-controlled. But they all have one thing in common: they are not in tune with their body and its needs. The result? They lose touch with their food sensations.

In reality, there are two obstacles that can lead us away from our benchmarks,” explains Gérard Apfeldorfer. First, dieting. As soon as we try to control the quality and quantity of what we eat, putting dietary and restrictive criteria before our pleasure, we neglect our food sensations. The risk is that, by dint of deprivation, we fall into a chocolate bar and compensate our frustration with compulsive snacking.

“On the other hand,” adds the psychiatrist, “there is our difficulty in managing our emotions, which food has the ability to calm. Boredom, anger, sadness…. When these are strong, we react hastily: we want to eat quickly, a lot, and preferably rich foods, which are the ones that calm us down the most. And yet, it is possible to find comfort in food, but in a more restrained way.

Hunger of the belly

End of the meal. When we are full, we touch our stomach and with a satisfied face we think “I have eaten well, I am not hungry anymore”. As a matter of habit, of education, of belief, many of us think that our belly is our best ally. It gurgles when we are hungry, fills up and calms down when we have eaten. And in a way it is true,” admits Gérard Apfeldorfer, “it is our stomach that tells us when hunger is over: satiety. The signal comes directly from the digestive tract. The problem is that we have to wait for the food to reach the duodenum (the highest part of the intestine) for the message to be transmitted to the brain. It is a process that takes about fifteen minutes. Fifteen minutes during which we often continue eating, believing that we are still hungry. And that’s why “I’m not hungry anymore” all too often turns into the famous “I’ve eaten too much”….

Hunger in the mouth

“The second seat of our food sensations,” explains the psychiatrist, “is our mouth. From there come the signals of pleasure, of satisfaction, but also of gustatory satiety: the end of the pleasure of eating a food. In practice, this is what happens: I eat a steak and fries. After several bites, I have the sensation that the taste of the steak and fries no longer appeals to me. I no longer have an appetite for steak and fries. That doesn’t mean I’m not hungry at all. So I’m going to turn to another food, like my dessert. My dessert, for example. So it is thanks to taste satiety that we have the ability to switch from one food to another, to eat in a varied and balanced way, but above all to know when we have eaten enough, in quantity, of a given food.

The mouth, our best ally

The challenge is to control this gustatory satiety: eating for pleasure and knowing when to stop,” says Gérard Apfeldorfer. Because in the context of a varied diet, composed of foods that do not all have the same caloric and energy density, stomach fullness is not a criterion for knowing whether we have eaten enough. The amount of food we are able to swallow does not tell us whether our meal has provided us with enough calories or not.

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Let’s take the example of a dieter, who eats only green beans for lunch. He may eat enough to feel fullness in his stomach and stop. But from the point of view of taste, they do not feel any satisfaction. And this,” adds the specialist, “especially because low-calorie foods, such as vegetables, do not provide any taste fatigue. A few hours later, she will be hungry again, because the food has not satisfied her.

On the other hand, if we only eat foie gras or chocolate, it will be the sensation in the mouth that stops us. When we feel that we run the risk of being disgusted and that the pleasure is no longer there. And this, even if the stomach is not full.

Conscious eating

Properly identifying gustatory satiety therefore requires us to listen to our body when we eat, which requires us to be fully in what we are doing (sitting down, not watching TV or reading at the same time, taking the time to chew well, breathing deeply between each mouthful…) and to ask ourselves. “What does it feel like in my mouth, is it still pleasant or will I end up being disgusted if I continue? This requires us to be attentive to our sensations, but above all to experience the pleasure from the beginning of the meal, otherwise the end of this pleasure will never come.

And if we eat like this, with full consciousness, we necessarily eat more slowly. Therefore, we are more likely to feel the fullness of the belly before we have overcome it. A virtuous circle on which rest the keys to a self-calibrated diet based on our needs, and nothing else.

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It’s the same principle for our emotions,” concludes Gérard Apfeldorfer. When we feel overwhelmed, we just have to choose a food that really makes us want to eat and enjoy it with full awareness. Focusing entirely on our mouth sensations. Chewing it slowly, and feeling it slide down our throat. Then, the chocolate bar can easily be reduced to a simple square, in the case of the blue ones. A square that is tasted, savored and fully appreciated. A square that is then enough in itself.

To go further

==&> Working on yourself… and losing weight.

Of course, therapy is not magic, and it all depends on the origin and age of excess weight. But by “letting go of the suitcases”, you can see the kilos weighing you down disappear. Chloé, Élise and others can attest to this.

To go further

Read also.

Mindful eating
The pleasure of sitting down to eat is too often spoiled by the fear of junk food. How can we reconcile ourselves with our plate? By listening to our hunger, our instinct and our senses? Simply.

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Psychology & Diet

Take advantage of December foods for the sake of your immunity



Presse Santé

Winter is mostly about curling up in bed with a hot chocolate and sleeping. This is the perfect season to relax. But with winter comes colds, coughs, and the flu. What our body needs during this time is a healthy, balanced diet that includes all the foods necessary to support our immune system. There are some simple ways to eat nutritious food to keep you warm and energized during the colder months. We’ve covered the most important ones in this article, along with some helpful winter nutrition tips.

Various vegetables and fruits of the month of December contain vitamin C.

December is a great time to stock up on vitamin C-rich fruits and vegetables. Citrus fruits like oranges and grapefruit are in season. As well as cruciferous vegetables like kale and Brussels sprouts. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that helps boost the immune system, making it an essential nutrient during cold and flu season. It not only helps fight infection, but also helps the body recover faster from illness. The next time you’re shopping for the winter months, be sure to include plenty of vitamin C-rich seasonal foods.

Don’t forget the super power of beets!!

Beetroot is one of the most amazing vegetables due to its versatility and nutrient density. They can be roasted, steamed, grilled, pickled, or even eaten raw. Plus, they’re packed with vitamins and minerals like potassium, iron, and vitamin C. But did you know that beets also have a superpower? They can help keep you healthy all winter long. In fact, they contain antioxidants that strengthen the immune system, such as betacyanin. The next time you’re not feeling well, try drinking some fresh beetroot juice or adding some to your stir-fry. You may find that this humble root vegetable is your new best friend during cold and flu season.

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Dates and nuts are also seasonal foods!! Enjoy!

There is no question that walnuts and dates are among the most nutrient-dense foods you can eat. They’re packed with vitamins, minerals, healthy fats, and fiber, and make a great snack or addition to any meal. Eating nuts and dates can help you stay healthy in December:

  • Walnuts and dates are an excellent source of antioxidants.
  • The healthy fats in nuts and dates can help keep skin hydrated and supple.
  • Eating nuts and dates can help boost your energy levels and keep you full longer.
  • The fibers contained in these foods can contribute to good digestion.

With sweet dates and crunchy nuts, turn them into energy balls the whole family can enjoy.

Have you thought about putting together a 100% orange menu?! We give you a summary!

A delicious and nutritious fall feast can be made up of many delicious components. For breakfast, how about orange juice and papaya slices? A boost of energy with a rush of vitamins and nutrients to start the day off right. For lunch, enjoy a side salad with yams and orange or a roasted squash. Baking brings out the natural sweetness of the squash, and pairing it with a bit of savory spice makes it a perfect starter. For the main course, why not try a hearty carrot soup? This dish is sure to please vegans and carnivores alike. And for dinner, try the grilled salmon with a side of roasted papaya and yams. There you have it, it’s a great way to enjoy December meals. So don’t hesitate and give it a try! With a little creativity, you can plan other red, green and white meals…why not?

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Consume hot spices to combat common ailments.

It’s no secret that spices like cinnamon, turmeric, and saffron can do wonders for your health. But did you know that these spices can also help you warm up in winter? Cinnamon helps improve blood circulation, which makes it perfect for cold days. Turmeric is a powerful anti-inflammatory, which can help relieve aches and pains. And saffron is a natural mood booster that helps chase away the winter blues. Add these spices to your meals and you will be surprised at how comforting they can be.

Baked potatoes with skin: a delight for the stomach and a plus of polyphenols for immunity.

We all know that potatoes are packed with nutrients like potassium and fiber, but did you know that they can also help boost your immune system? In fact, potatoes with their skin on contain polyphenols, plant compounds with proven anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Studies have shown that polyphenols can help reduce the risk of several diseases, including cancer and heart disease. Therefore, baked potatoes are not only delicious, but also good for health. So go ahead and enjoy that extra serving of baked potatoes. Your stomach and your immune system deserve it.

* HealthKey strives to convey health knowledge in a language accessible to all. In NO EVENT can the information provided replace the opinion of a health professional.

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Psychology & Diet

5 harmful and little-known effects of sugar on health



Presse Santé

Sugars are a type of simple carbohydrate found naturally in certain foods and drinks. They are also an additive in some foods and drinks. Excessive sugar consumption can lead to health problems, such as increased risk of weight gain, diabetes, tooth decay, etc. Many healthy food products, such as dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, naturally contain sugars. The sugar in these foods makes them taste sweeter. It is important to include these foods in your diet, as they come with a variety of other nutrients that provide valuable health benefits. However, manufacturers tend to add sugar to foods like cereals and cakes, as well as some beverages. It is these added sugars, or free sugars, that cause health problems. Unlike foods and drinks that naturally contain sugar, those with added sugar have no nutritional value. They are also a poor source of energy because the body digests added sugar very quickly. Excessive consumption can lead to long-term health problems.

This article looks at five reasons why added sugars are bad for you.

1. Lack of nutritional value

Sugar is an empty calorie. Adding it to food and drinks drastically increases their caloric content without providing any nutritional benefits. The body usually digests these foods and drinks quickly. This means that they are not a good source of energy. Products that naturally contain sugar are different. For example, fruits and dairy products contain natural sugars. The body digests these foods at a slower rate, making them a long-lasting source of energy. These products also tend to contain other nutrients. For example, they also contain fiber and a number of vitamins and minerals. The average adult in the West consumes about 308 calories from added sugars per day. This is much higher than the recommendations that recommend 100 calories from added sugars for women and 150 calories for men. Consuming empty calories negates the health benefits of consuming other foods and beverages that have nutritional value. It can also cause imbalances, as nutrient deficits can lead to other health complications.

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2. Weight gain

Weight gain is a significant risk of excessive dietary sugar consumption. In most cases, sugary foods and drinks are high in calories. Excessive consumption of these products leads to weight gain, even with regular exercise. There is strong evidence showing that excess sugar in the diet is a cause of weight gain. Since foods with added sugars are generally digested faster by the body, they don’t suppress hunger for long. This can lead to eating more regularly throughout the day and a higher total calorie intake.

There is also some evidence to suggest that sugar may affect the biological pathways that regulate hunger. Leptin is a hormone that regulates hunger by determining how much energy the body needs. Disruption of leptin function can lead to weight gain and obesity. A study conducted in rats found that a diet high in fat and sugar could lead to leptin resistance. Leptin resistance occurs when the body no longer responds properly to leptin. The study authors found that eliminating sugar from the diet reversed leptin resistance. Another 2014 study found that sugary drinks may be a particular problem for leptin resistance.

It is important to note that sugar alone does not cause weight gain or obesity. Sugar is one cause among others. Being overweight or obese is the result of a complex interaction between diet, physical activity, genetics, and social and environmental factors. However, limiting the amount of sugar in the diet is one of the easiest ways to prevent weight gain.

3. Diabetes

Drinking sodas or other sugary drinks can increase the risk of developing diabetes. There is a link between the consumption of sugary drinks and the development of type 2 diabetes.
It is not true that sugar alone causes diabetes. Any diet high in calories can lead to type 2 diabetes. However, in most cases, diets high in sugar are high in calories. This can increase the risk of diabetes.

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Sugary drinks are particularly problematic. A meta-analysis of data from 310,819 people found that people with high consumption of sugary drinks had a 26% higher risk of type 2 diabetes than people with low consumption. The study defined “high consumption” as between one and two sugary drinks per day.

4. Tooth decay

Sugar consumption can cause cavities, which can lead to cavities. After eating sugar, bacteria in the mouth form a thin layer of dental plaque on the teeth. These bacteria react with sugars in food and drinks. This reaction triggers the release of an acid that damages the teeth. The body may repair some of this damage on its own. However, over time, a high-sugar diet causes lasting damage. This can lead to tooth decay. Cavities are leaky holes that form in the teeth.
Limiting the consumption of foods high in sugar is an effective way to prevent cavities.

5. Heart disease

Diets high in sugar can increase the risk of heart disease. The results of a 15-year study suggest that people whose diets contain a lot of added sugar are much more likely to die of heart disease than people whose diets contain little added sugar. Again, research suggests that sugary drinks may be particularly problematic in increasing the risk of heart disease. This association could be explained by the fact that sugary drinks are high in calories, have no effect on hunger, and provide insufficient energy. Although there is a clear link, more research will be needed to better understand the relationship between sugar and heart disease.

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How to recognize hidden sugar

Added sugars can appear in many surprising products. Checking the contents of foods before buying them is one way to avoid added sugars. However, on some food labels it’s hard to tell if they contain added sugar, as there are many different names for it.

Here are some examples of other names for added sugar:

agave nectar
high fructose corn syrup
corn sweetener
crystalline fructose
evaporated cane juice

To maintain a healthy diet, it is best that men consume no more than 36 grams (g) of added sugar per day, and women consume no more than 25 g per day.
This is the recommendation of the trusted source AHAT. Currently, the average person in the United States consumes much more than these limits.


Sugar is not unhealthy in and of itself. However, consuming a natural source of sugar is healthier than consuming added sugars. Too much sugar in the diet can cause a variety of conditions, including heart disease, weight gain, and diabetes. To be aware of added sugars in food products, it is important to read labels carefully.

* HealthKey strives to convey health knowledge in a language accessible to all. In NO EVENT can the information provided replace the opinion of a health professional.

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Psychology & Diet

Three good reasons to eat a croissant first thing in the morning even if you are on a diet



When it comes to breakfast pastries, croissants are definitely at the top of the list. Flaky, buttery, and delicious, it’s hard to resist, especially in the morning. However, if you’re trying to take care of your figure, you may be wondering if a croissant is really the best option. Here are three good reasons to continue enjoying your favorite breakfast, even if you’re on a diet.

A plain croissant is relatively low in calories.

A plain croissant only contains about 220 calories, which is lower than other breakfast options like muffins or bagels. Plus, croissants help you enjoy a gourmet breakfast that will fill you up all morning. This will help you avoid snacking later in the day.

There’s no shame in indulging once in a while.

Crossing the line and indulging your cravings for a day will only boost your metabolism. Think of your indulgence as a “cheat meal” that bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts make to boost their metabolism and make their bodies burn even more.

One study found that dieters who eat a 700-calorie breakfast lose more weight than those who skip that meal. So if you’re looking to rev up your metabolism, eating a croissant early in the morning might be just what you need. Just be sure to pair it with healthy ingredients, like eggs and avocado, to ensure you’re getting all the nutrients you need.

Depriving yourself to hold the line would only make you succumb to covetous desires.

For fear of derailing your diet, you deprive yourself of your favorite foods and this only affects your mood. You become more irritable and anxious, which is of little benefit to your mental or physical health. You can maintain your ideal weight or lose weight by controlling portions and eating your food. However, if you crave a croissant on a Sunday morning, grab one and balance out your subsequent meals or engage in some high-intensity activity. You deserve to take a break and treat yourself however you see fit.

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What other false enemies can we afford from time to time?


When we try to lose weight, many of us immediately eliminate all starches from our diets. However, this can be detrimental to our health. Our bodies need carbohydrates for energy, and complex carbohydrates like starches are an important part of a balanced diet. The key is to choose the right starches and consume them in moderation. Whole wheat bread, pasta, and rice are good options. These foods are high in fiber and nutrients, and can help us feel full throughout the day. When we cut calories, it’s important to make sure we’re still getting the nutrients our bodies need. By including healthy starches in our diet, we can achieve this.

Fats :

Many people think that fat is taboo when it comes to losing weight, but that is not the case. In fact, our body needs fat to function properly. The key is to choose healthy fats that support our weight loss goals instead of sabotaging them. One way to do this is to cook with olive oil instead of butter. Olive oil is lower in saturated fat and contains heart-healthy monounsaturated fats.

Another option is to eat more fish. Fish like salmon and tuna are high in omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to aid weight loss. Finally, nuts and seeds are also excellent sources of healthy fats. Just be sure to choose unsalted and unroasted varieties for best results. By incorporating these healthy fats into our diet, we can achieve our weight loss goals without sacrificing our nutritional needs.

* HealthKey strives to convey health knowledge in a language accessible to all. In NO EVENT can the information provided replace the opinion of a health professional.

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